Subject Guides

Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Citing at SOPPS

Binghamton University SOPPS, and many other pharmacists, use either NLM, Vancouver, or Chicago styles.

Directly below is a Quick Citation Guide to the National Library of Medicine (NLM) format put together for SOPPS. Further below are quick examples of journal and drug information database citations. 

Parts of a Citation

There are hundreds of citation styles that all express the same information in various orders and formats. There are tools that help with the specifics of citations but it is important, and beneficial, to know what it is that makes up the citation. 

The two parts of every citation style:

  1. In-text citation. Every piece of information that is cited has an indication that it is being cited. This is most often seen as either a small number or as a name and date in parenthesis. This information tells the reader/viewer where to look for the source of the cited information. 
  2. Bibliography/Reference List entry. At the end of every work is a list of all the items cited throughout that work. This list is where all the descriptive information is found that will help the reader/viewer find the source. 

Both of these parts need to be present to have an adequate citation. The bibliography entry is often the most complicated and where the majority of differences between citation styles occur. Almost all styles are made up of the same components:

  • Title of the specific work
    • Article title, book chapter title, title of art piece, etc.
  • Title of the larger piece of work
    • Journal title, book title, newspaper name, etc.
  • Creator/Author/Editor
    • Who created the work? 
  • Publisher and publisher location
  • Date the work was published
  • Additional identifying information
    • For articles this includes issue and volume number. For articles and book chapters you also need page numbers.
  • Location information for online material
    • This includes URL's (necessary for websites) and DOI's (for online articles)

Self Plagiarism or Text Recycling

Text Recycling, also referred to as Self Plagiarism, is when an author uses their own text/words from a previous publication in a new publication. While there is debate about the acceptability of the practice it is usually agreed that when an author reuses their own words and ideas they should cite themselves and limit the amount of direct copying.

For students, this occurs is assignments, rather than published materials. Even though some assignments are very similar throughout the university career, students should not reproduce their own work without citing themselves and checking with their professors. 

Here are a few resources discussing the topic

Example Citations




Citation Tools

Citation/Reference management tools are incredibly helpful! Not only do they help you keep all of your research organized and in one place, they help you write your citations! Below are a few options to chose from. They all work about the same so use whichever you personally prefer.

  • EndNote is another popular tool, especially in the sciences. However, it is pricey. It is good to be aware of, but most likely not necessary unless you already have a preference for it. There is also a free version, EndNote Basic which is not as robust, but is free.
  • Zotero and Mendeley are both quality free options.

If you need assistance with any of these, just ask!

In addition, there are various websites that will take the components of a citation and put it in the appropriate format for the style you need. A couple examples include: Citation Machine, EasyBib, and BibMe.