You must attribute others' ideas, research, images, graphs, research and quotes in your papers and presentations. When you are unsure what to cite, please review the links under Tutorials and Quizzes, or talk to your instructor for guidance.
The Binghamton Writing Iniatives' Writing Center can help with citation questions and source integration.
Font: Unless your instructor specifies otherwise, Times New Roman, 12-point font is assumed, which is the default font permitted in earlier styles of APA. APA 7th edition does allow for other fonts, particularly for web-based reading, and are specifed in the APA Manual.
Margins: 1 inch margins.
Running Head: For Student papers this is a left justified Page Header of the just the page number.
For Professional/graduate papers, this is a left justified Page Header consisting of the paper title (all in caps) and the page number, no more then 50 characters total.
If in doubt, use the Professional papers option, since this was standard in the earlier verions of the APA Manual.
Title Page: The title page should contain the page number; the title (bolded). author(s) names, Department/Program for submission, Course number and name, Instructor, and date.
The font should match the rest of the paper; and should be double spaced as shown here on the Student Title Page example.
Professional papers and graduate level papers may require the Professional page set up, which is shown further down the page.
APA Style uses both author and date for in-text citations. Page numbers or paragraph numbers (when page numbers are not available, such as from online sources not in PDF form) only need to be included when directly quoting or when paraphrasing a specific idea.
General points regarding in-text citations:
Examples of in-text citations:
Each entry has four elements:
Journal articles - print
Author Lastname, Firstname Initials (year). Article title. Journal Title, volume(number), pages.
Mix, V.L. (2012). Fear and loathing in library land: Staff development utlizing humor. Dttp: Documents to the People, 40(2), 20-23.
Journal articles - electronic
Electronic journal articles should be cited with a doi or other unique electronic identifer (earticle number or a URL if available in a OpenAccess journal).
Author Lastname, Firstname Initials (year). Article title. Journal Title, volume(number), pages, access
Elam, M. & Sundqvist, G. (2011). Meddling in Swedish success in nuclear waste management. Environment Politics, 20(2), 243-263, https://doi.org./10.1080/09644106.2011551030
Aristeidou, M. Heroudotou, C., Ballard., H.L., Young, A.N., Miller, A.E., Higgins, L.& Johnson, R.F. (2021). Exploring the participation of young citizen scientists in scientific research: The case of iNaturalist. PLOS ONE, 16(1), Article e0245682. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0245682
Journal articles - electronic - no DOI or open URL available
APA 7th edition (section 9.30) recommends that if the journal article is widely and easily available, even if it is available through a library database requiring a log in, then treat it as a print article. For example, if an article is in a peer-reviewed or popular journal in an Ebsco-hosted or Proquest-hosted database (an aggregator) then it is necessary to provide a permalink or other URL when a DOI is not available.
If an source is beleived to be unique to that database and can not be found elsehwere, then the access information should be provided (see "Electronic articles only availabe from one source" below).
This is a change from previous versions of APA.
Newspaper and magazine articles
Since these are published weekly or daily, more date information is given. The rules about when to provide a URL or DOI remain the same.
Electronic - retrevied through the Libraries databases:
Grose. J. (2020, December 12). Moms on the COVID frontlines. New York Times (Onlne).
The title is given in the database as New York Times (Online) and thus, is reflected as such in the citation.
Electronic - read online at the NYT website
Grose. J. (2020, December 12). Moms on the COVID frontlines. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/23/parenting/medical-worker- moms.html
Grose. J. (2020, December 12). Moms on the COVID frontlines. New York Times, A5-A7.
Electronic articles only available from one source
If a work is of "limited circulation," - that you need to be on a specific site (free or paid) to get access to the article, then APA requires that you provide the name of the source as part of the citation. This includes online pre-print archives, instutituional repositories, and archives.
Cochrane reviews are not available anywhere other then on the Cochrane site
Lorentzen, A.K., Davis, C. & Penninga, L. (2020). Interventions for frostbite injuries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, https://10.1002/14651858.CD012980.pub2
Article available on a pre-print server. Later versions of the article might be available elsewere. But this version is unique to the archive.
Batty, G.D, Deary, I. Gale. C. Pre-pandemic cognitive function and COVID-19 mortality: prospective cohort study. bioRxiv: http://medrxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2021.02.07.21251082
Author, (year). Title (edition). Publisher.
Pratchett, T. (2003). Monstrous regiment: A novel of Discworld. Harpur Collins Publishers.
Books, electronic with a DOI or Open URL
Rommer, S. Hedman, P. Olsson, M., Frid,L., Sultana, S. & Mulligan, C. (eds). (2019). 5G core networks: Powering digitilization. Academic Press; Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2018-0-01335-3
Coates, T. (2015). Between the world and me. Random House Publishing Group; One World. https://www.kobo.com/us/en/ebook/between-the-world-and-me
E-books accessed through the library without a DOI
APA 7th edition (section 9.30) recommends that if the only online access address is one that points to a library-access database, then cite the book as a print book.
This guidance is a change from previous versions of APA, so if in doubt, check with your professor if you should follow this, or use the 6th edition guidance.
Individual chapters from an edited book
Chapter author, (date). Title of chapter. In Book editors (Eds.), Title of book, (pp. pages of chapter). Publisher.
Burt. K. (2020). Self-discovery, free will and change: The ethics of growing up in the fantasy world of Terry Pratchett. In Noone, K & Leverret, E.L. (Eds.)., Terry Pratchett's ethical worlds: Essays on identity and narrative in the Discworld and beyond (pp. 45-60). MacFarland and Company, Inc.
For an online edited book, follow the rules given above.
de Rouen, A.T. (2014). Change and continuity: An analysis of the socio-spatial fabric of the Tesvikiye-Nisantiasi, 1945-1960. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Binghamton University.
Electronic, from a database
Abubakari: M. (2019). A mixed methods study of food outlet accessibility in Broome County, New York: Analyses from an indisciplinary feminist geography and social epemiology framework. (Publication No. 27547967). [Doctoral dissertation, Binghamton University]. Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global.
Video and films
Director (date). Title. Producer/Production. URL, if applcable.
Bauman, S. (Director). (1988). The artist was a woman. Filmakers Library.
Information on the format of the film/video is not necessary unless the format of it essential to information obtained, such as using commentary or a specific version.
Author/Creator (year month day). Title [Video]. Name of website. URL.