U.S Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets Published by the State Department, this series covers information on the people, history, government, political conditions, economy and foreign relations of most countries.
Export.gov Particularly useful links are listed under the How to Export section. Trade leads and export guides can be found under the Market Intelligence tab.
globalEDGE Click on the Global Insights link to get to Country Commercial Guides and more. The Tools and Data tab will take you to the Market Potential Index (MPI) for Emerging Markets.
Europa World Year Book e-book Includes essays on information such as industry, government, communications, and population.
A Resource Guide on Doing Business in the Middle East Somewhat generic but has useful general information.